Life Sketch Of The Tenth Guru

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Guru Gobind Singh was born on December 26, 1666 A.D. at Shri Patna Sahib. His father’s name was Shri Guru Tegh Bahadur ji and his mother’s name was Shri Mata Gujri Ji. He had three wives named Shri Mata Sundri Ji, Shri Mata Jeeto Ji and Shri Mata Sahib Kaur Ji. He had four sons named Baba Ajit Singh Ji and Jojhar Singh who were martyred in Garhi Chamkaur for Sikh Religion on December 22, 1704 and Baba Jorawar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh were martyred in Fatehgarh Sahib, Sirhind on December 27, 1704 A.D. Shri Mata Gujri ji also died in Sirhind. His father was martyred at Chandni Chowk in Delhi in 1675 A.D.

Early Childhood

1. Sayyad Bhikhan Shah and Pir Arafdin bowed before Guru after seeing a Divine Light.

2. Guru ji gave training of bow and arrow to a group of children, broke the vessels of women with arrows, gave blessing of a son to the wife of a rich man, appeared before Pandit Shiv Dutt in the form of Ram, took gram sweet from Raja Fateh Chand ‘Maini’ and his queen with great happiness. Maini Sangat Gurdwara etc. are important places in memory of the Guru.

3. The Guru throwaway a golden bangle in Ganges river and throw away even the second bangle when asked by mother and uncle named Kirpal Chand, showing that he had no intention to retain money.

4. Kazi Rahim Bux and Karim Bux offered one village and two gardens with love to the Guru.

5. Historical places in Shri Patna Sahib (Bihar).

A. Siri Harimander Sahib
B. Gobind Ghat
C. Gurdwara Maini Sangat
D. Pangura Sahib, four arrows, small sword, small Khanda (double edged sword), a comb made of Sandal wood, the Kharava of eltphant’s teeth, small circle, shield, a well named after Mata Gujri, a picture of the child Guru are present in his memory.

After five years, Guru ji came to Punjab, from Shri Patna Sahib via Dana ur, Handi Sahib Gurdwara, where a follower offered rice. Guru ji stayed for about six months at Lakhnaur in the house of Bhai Jetha ji where a beautiful Gurdwara is built. Guru ji came to this place through Chhota Mirzapur, Agra, Kansi, Pirag Raj, Ayudiya Lucknow, Agra, Mathura, Gokal, Bindraban, Hardwar and Saharanpur. At Shri Anandpur Sahib, the child Guru was given religious and milltary training by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. Munshi Sahib Chand and Pir Mohd. taught Gurmukhi and Persian respectively. Guru ji was the source of all kinds of studies. Bal Guru persuaded his father to sacrifice in Delhi for the sake of Kashmiri Brahmins to save their religion. Bhai Ram Kaur ji (Gubux Singh ji) installed Bal Guru on Gurgaddi. Guru ji gathered the army, got prepared huge drum of victory (Ranjit Nagara) and fixed Nishan Sahib, Raja Rattan Rai of Assam alonwith his mother presented Parsadi elephant military equipment choki, vessels of silver and five horses and became a follower of the Guru. He stayed here for about six months. A valua Ie tant was presented by Duni Chand Masand of Kabul.These things were increasing the prestige of Guru’s Darbar. 52 poets added honour to the Darbar.Gurbani of the tenth Guru is included in the “Dasam Granth” which shows the path of bravery. Guru ji was the preacher of equality. The Moghul Empire and Hilly Rajas were deadly against it. Guru ji had to fight 14 religious wars to help the poor people, and he had to sacrifice his all but faith in God (AkaI Purakh) his highest ideal.

Some religious battles of Guruji are as below:-

1. Bhangani: (1689 A.D.) The battle between Guru Ji and Hill Rajas (Near Paunta Sahib, Nahan).

2. Nadon Hilly Rajas did not pay any taxes to Aurangzeb

3. Golar Guru ji helped the Hilly Rajas.

4. Anandpur: Here the fort was seized for about three years. Starvation started. The followers had to live on the leaves of trees.Their lives became miserable and requested Guru Ji to leave the fort. But Guru Ji did not want to go. Some followers left the fort against the Guruji’s will.It is called disclaimer.At last, Guru Ji left the fort alongwith 500 Sikhs on Poh 6, 1761 B.In their memory, Gurdwara ‘Parvar Vichhora’ is present, near Ropar. Here Mata Gujri Ji and his two younger sons (aged 9 & 7) alongwith Gangoo Brahmin a cook of Guru ji, of village Khari, left for Sirhind and helped the govt. to arrest them. Gangoo proved himself unthankful.Here Mati Ram Mehra served them with milk. Diwan Sucha Nand stressed that they should be killed.

Sher Mohd.Khan Nawab of Malerkotla opposed this decision and wanted to release them.The martyrdom was ordered by Wazir Khan. Governor of Sirhind on December 27, 1704 A.D. (Poh 13, 1761 B).

5. Chamkaur: Seize of Chamkaur by the Moghul forces (1704 A.D. Only 40 Sikhs gave heroic fight and were manyred along with two elder sons of Guru Ji aged 13 & 15, on Poh 8,1761 B.) From this place, Guru Ji went to Machhiwara after installing the Panth on Gurgaddi. The three Sikhs Bhai Daya Singh Ji, Bhai Dharam Slllgh Ji and Bhai Mann Singh Ji, who survived in Garhi Chamkaur, met Guru Ji in Machhiwara Guru Ji reached here with torn clothes, sore feet and tired. Here Guru Ji sang a song: “Go and tell the beloved Lord, we feel like being baked alive.” ‘Pir of Uch’ was formed by Nabi Khan and Ghani Khan. Here Guru Ji wrote a letter of victory to Aurangzeb. Pir Nabi Khan and Ghani Khan got Hukam Nama and two golden bangles in village Hairon.

6. Khidrana Ki Dhab-Muktsar: Here Guru Ji tore the paper of disclaimers belonging to Bhai Mahan Singh Ji, In Lakhi Jungle. Guru Ji said, “After hearing the song of Mahi, the buffaloes left the drinking and grass”.


Guru Ji selected five beloved ones named ”Bhai Daya Singh Ji”, “Bhai Dharam Singh Ji”, “Bhai Mohkam Singh Ji”, “Bhai Himat Singh Ji” and “Bhai Sahib Singh Ji” in Keshgarh Sahib, Anandpur Sahib in 1699 A D. (Baisakh 1, 1756 B). Guru Ji baptised them and he himself was baptised by them.Guru ji ordered to recite Nit-Nem: Jap, Jap, 10 Savayas, Chopai, Anand, Rehras, and Sohila. Guru ji gave them the following Gurmantra and Mool Mantra :- (Waheguru), God is one. Truth is His name. He is the creator. He is fearless. He is without enmity. He is the immortal. He is unborn.He is self-illuminated.By the grace of the Guru. These are five signs of Khalsa: Kachha, Karra, Kanga, Kirpan, Kesh. Guru prohibited Khalsa to use meat, smoke and cutting of hair.Guru ji prevented the Khalsa from having any relation with Meenas, Masands Dhirmalias, Ram Rais. He advised them to work honestly and distributed one tenth of the earnings among the needy.

Once Guru ji put the skin of lion on donkey and told the followers to understand the meaning of Khalsa.Thus Guru ji prevented the Khalsa from being false. Guru ji advised the Khalsa to work hard. Once a boy brought a glass of water to Guru ji, but Guru ji, refused it, the reason was that the boy had never served anyone. Hola Mohalla was the main contribution of Guru ji and is celebrated every year.

Some important followers
Bhai Joga Singh was watched by the Guru at the gate of drab in Hoshiarpur.Bhai Mahan Singh who wrote disclaimer in the battle of Shri Anandpur Sahib.At Muktsar, Guru ji tore into pieces the disclaiming paper.Here he was martyred.Mata Bhago was the leader of the Jatha (Group).

Bhai Nand Singh Malvai was advised by the Guru ji to lead the family life.

Bhai Ghanaya participated in the battle of Shri Anandpur Sahib and served water to the sikhs and the enemy without distinction.

Bhai Bachittar Singh killed the drunken elephant of hilly Rajas at Lohgarh Anandpur.

Bibi Deep Kaur killed three Muslims with sword when they wanted to murder her in village Talban.

Bibi Rup Kaur wanted to marry Guru ji, but Guru ji prevented her according to Sikh law.

Pir Budhoo Shah participated in the battle of Bhangani, Guru ji gave him Kesh Kanga and small turban. Nasira was his sister.

Zaibul Nisha: The daughter of Moghal Emperor Aurangzeb advised her father not to fight against Guru ji. In the battle of Shri Anandpur Sahib, Mamu Khan, Sayed Khan, were fighting for Guru ji and Dina beg, Painda Khan Sayad Khan and Ramzan against Guru ji. Duni Chand Masand left the fort and broke his leg by jumping over.

Bahni Snah was baptised and he was renaimed Ajmair Singh of village Chhatiana.

Bhai Dan Singh Brar obeyed the order and refused to take pay from Guru ji in Lakhi Jungle (Chhatiana).
Fatu and Lamu of Talian offered bed sheet to Guru Ji. Guru ji advised to Sikhu and Bidhu faqirs of village Bajak that the world is perishable.

Sodhi Koul of village Dhilvan Kalan offered white clothes and a horse to Guru ji. Guru ji took off the blue dress of Machhiwara.

Haji Rattan of Bhatinda met Guru ji and Guru ji told him God is everywhere and He is Almighty.

Bhai Dalla was baptised at Talwandi Sabo (Shri Damdama Sahib, Fifth Takhat).

The Zafernama was written in village Dina Kangar in the house of Shamir, Lakhmir and Taikhat Mal (three brothers), to Aurangzeb.

Rai Kala of Rai Koat, sent Nura Mahi to Sirhind. He told Guru ji, the whole history of Mata Gujri ji and two younger sons of Guruji.At that time Guru ji dig out the piece of grass with arrow and said, this cruel Mughal Empire is destroyed.

Guru ji had good relations with Raja Medni Parkash of Paunta Sahib (State Nahan) Guru ji wrote ‘Chopai’ at Bibhor.

Bhai Nagahia Singh ji of village Alamgir offered a horse to Guruji.

Mahant Kirpal Dass Udasi participated in the battle of Bhangani.

Raman, Tirloka and Toder Mal established Shri Joti Sarup (Sirhind).

Bhai Mani Singh sent the wives of Guru from Ropar to Delhi.

Gurbax Singh Udasi served the Gurdwara of Shri Anandpur Sahib.

Mata Hardevi of Machhiwara offered a piece of cotton to Guruji. In this place Guruji took food in the house of Gulaba Masand.

Guru ji sent five followers to Kanshi for higher education, and they were called “Nirmalas”.

Guru ji taught Mahant Jait Ram of Dadudwara about bravery.

Guru ji advised Roda Jalali to speak truth and leave falsehood.

Guru ji punished the Masands of Dehradun on the request of Mata Punjab Kaur the wife of Ram Rai.

At Nohar Guruji preached among Jains.

At Nander Sahib Guru ji baptised Banda Baragi and sent him to Punjab.

Guru ji was injured by the attack of a pathan with dagger who was sent by Wazid Khan Governor of Sirhind, Guru ji installed Guru Granth Sahib as the Guru and Panth would be under his control.

Guru ji left for his Heavenly abode at Nander on Katik Sudi 5, 1765 B, (1708 A.D.)